Forensic science is the application of science in analyzing evidence from a crime scene. Within the field of forensics, there are many specialties that involve applying skills to specific types of evidence.
Ballistics specialists are experts in firearms. They use shell casings, examination of exit and entrance wounds or holes in objects, firearms, and bullets to help investigators determine the type or location of a weapon that was used.
Blood Spatter Analysis
Blood spatter analysis experts use bloodstains and spatters that are left at a crime scene to answer questions to the type of weapon used, the location of the perpetrator and the victim, and the amount of force or number of weapon strikes.
DNA analysis is used to determine the identity of an individual using a sample of hair or bodily fluids, such as saliva, blood or semen.
Trace Evidence Analysis
Trace evidence is small bits of evidence such as fibers, hairs, dirt or grass that are deposited at the crime scene and can help lead identifiers to a perpetrator.
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Forensic anthropologists use their knowledge to identify human remains such as bones. They determine the age and sex of an individual based only on the skeleton or skull, and might also be able to theorize as to the cause of death or weapon used.