Assignments and assumptions are part of contract law and refer to the transfer of someone's duties and benefits in a contract to another. Assignments and assumptions are common with respect to contracts for loans or leases. A lender or lessor may assign its rights to another lender or lessor, and a borrower or lessee may find someone to assume the loan or lease and make the payments.
TL;DR (Too Long; Didn't Read)
Assignments and assumptions are both transfers of contractual benefits and burdens from one party to another. They differ from each other based on the original position of the transferring party and the duties and benefits being transferred.
The Elements of a Contract
A contract is legally formed when two or more parties enter into an agreement with certain elements, which include:
- An offer. For instance, in a mortgage transaction, the lender offers to loan money to the borrower.
- Acceptance of the offer. The mortgage borrower agrees to borrow the money.
- Consideration. Consideration in a contractual relationship means the things the two parties give to each other in exchange for entering the contract. A mortgage lender loans money to the borrower, and in exchange, the borrower agrees to repay the money and give the lender a lien on the house. The loan, the repayment with interest and the mortgage lien are consideration for the contract.
- Mutuality. The parties must have come together and agreed upon the terms of the contract
Burdens and Benefits of a Contract
The contract sets forth what the parties are required to do during the contractual relationship. With a mortgage, the lender is required to loan the money and apply the payments correctly in accordance with the agreement, and then release the lien when the loan is paid. The borrower is required to pay the loan back with interest, pay the property taxes and make sure the property has insurance.
These contractual obligations create both burdens and benefits on both sides. The lender has the burden of making the loan and applying the payments correctly, but it has the benefit of receiving interest on the loan. The borrower has the burdens of making payments and insuring the property but has the benefit of owning the home.
Assigning a Contract
An assignment occurs when one party to a contract transfers, or assigns, its rights and obligations under the contract to another party. This happens frequently with mortgage loans, as lenders sell loans to other lenders. The lender will enter into an assignment agreement and assign the note and the mortgage to another party. The borrower then must make the payments to the assignee. The assignee's right and obligations under an assignment are the same as the assignor's rights and obligations and cannot be changed without a new contract.
Assuming a Contract
An assumption is the other side of the coin, in a sense. Assumptions are common with respect to leases and mortgages and typically occur when the borrower or lessee wants to transfer the property to someone else without paying off the loan or lease. Assumption means someone is taking over the side of the contract that requires payment.
If the contract allows it, another person can agree to assume the original party's obligations under the contract – the obligations to make monthly payments, etc. – in exchange for taking over the ownership or the lease.
Not every contract can be assumed. The language of the contract will state whether the borrower or lessee is allowed to transfer the property or lease by assumption.
Assignment and Assumption Agreements
Assignments and assumptions are both conducted by written agreement. Sometimes an assignment and an assumption will occur in the same transaction, and one agreement will cover both; the parties are assigning the benefits and assuming the burdens.