California probate law provides a simplified procedure for settling an estate with limited assets, referred to as a "small estate." In an appropriate situation, you can use a small estate affidavit to transfer an estate's assets to the proper beneficiaries without having to open a formal probate proceeding with the court. To use a small estate affidavit to settle an estate, the estate must meet certain legal requirements regarding the maximum value of the estate's assets and the type of property to be transferred.
Basic Requirements to Use Small Estate Affidavit
As of January of 2012, an estate with assets valued at $150,000 or less, excluding certain types of assets, is considered a small estate under California law. In determining the estate’s value, both the decedent’s personal and real property is included; however, the small estate affidavit can only be used to transfer personal property to a beneficiary, not real property. The type of property transferred using a small estate affidavit typically includes bank accounts, stocks, mutual funds and other financial investments.
Using a Small Estate Affidavit
California law requires at least 40 days to elapse from the date of the decedent's death and no pending probate proceedings for the estate before you can use a small estate affidavit to acquire an estate asset to which you are entitled. The contents of the affidavit must conform to the requirements set forth in California Probate Code Section 13101. Oftentimes, a blank small estate affidavit form can be obtained from a law library, courthouse or online legal document provider. Additionally, financial institutions may require you to use their small estate affidavit form to gain access to accounts at their institution. After completing the small estate affidavit, provide it to the holder of the property, such as a bank, along with a certified copy of the death certificate and any other requested documents in exchange for the property.
Estates with Both Real and Personal Property
In order to use a small estate affidavit for an estate that also includes real property, California law requires an inventory and appraisal of the real property to be attached to the affidavit. You obtain the required inventory and appraisal by using the services of a probate referee appointed by the California State Controller's Office. The affidavit with the attached inventory and appraisal is then used to acquire the personal property.
Affidavit Procedure Is Optional
Using a small estate affidavit is optional. Under California law, formal probate proceedings can be opened for any estate regardless of its value. Although using a small estate affidavit is typically less expensive and time consuming than formal probate, circumstances may dictate that a supervised administration of the estate by the probate court is needed. Such circumstances include an estate likely to involve a contentious dispute among beneficiaries or an estate that must deal with disputed creditor claims.
- California Legislature: Probate Code Section 13100-13116
- Stephen C. Gruber, Attorney at Law: California Small Estates Law
- Sacramento County Public Law Library: Affidavit for Collection of Personal Property
- California State Controller's Office: Probate Referees' Guide
- California Courts: Affidavit for Transfer of Personal Property Worth $150,000 or Less
- Sacramento County Public Law Library: Affidavit for Collection of Personal Property: How to Use a Small Estate Affidavit to Collect Property in California