TL;DR (Too Long; Didn't Read)
Residential buildings with installed sprinkler systems often receive a break on their hazard insurance.
Building or rehabbing a home, a multi-family residence or even commercial and industrial spaces is a challenge, especially to the unlicensed professional. Commercial and industrial projects differ from residential guidelines of construction, including placement of fire safety sprinklers and equipment. State regulations on fire safety take precedence in residential construction as do the types of property where the sprinklers are required, be it a single-family home, townhouse, multi-family residence or high-rise structure.
Rehabbing an older residence means boning up on the ever-changing rules of fire sprinkler distances and their placement. Working with a licensed contractor or fire safety expert helps to ensure the right requirements are met and that a certificate of occupancy is issued without problems.
Setting the Standards
The National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA) and the American Society for Testing and Materials set the standards for construction and fire prevention safety in the United States and worldwide. Working within their codes gives assurance that the property is built with the best safety standards written as of a certain date.
Sprinkler distance rules are an integral part of their regulations. The guidelines set by these organizations are not laws but a conscientious “Bible” for builders everywhere. Cities and states set their own regulations and while states have building “codes,” few have turned those codes into laws when it comes to sprinkler systems.
Local jurisdictions write the building codes, as listed in the references section of this article. If a property is not built to local “code” a certificate of occupancy is not issued until violations are corrected.
Sprinkler Safety and Best Practices
Sprinkler placement is scientific as well as strategic. The simple scientific fact that heat rises is the basic component of fire safety. Placing the sprinkler too low from the ceiling puts the sprinkler head out of the range of the accumulating heat and lessens its ability to sense danger.
The same theory holds when walls meet. An air pocket is created, diminishing the build-up of heat.
Guide to Installing Effective Sprinklers
There are as many types of sprinklers as there are sizes and shapes of spaces. Each is selected based on best use. However, best practices dictate that spacing of the sprinkler heads range between 12-15 feet, according to the NFPA. Exceptions exist for highly combustible or hazardous conditions where the spacing is reduced.
Sidewall sprinklers are also guided by NFPA rules. Six feet of clearance between heads is set as the standard, and installation must be at least four inches from the adjoining wall. This gives the head access to building heat before it enters the corner trap and cools. It also gives a wider berth for the spraying action.
Calculating Ceiling Drops
In a building where a vast amount of space and high ceilings dominate, sprinkler heads must activate at a minimum distance from the where heat accumulates. They can’t be obstructed by items stacked on the floor which prevent the heat from triggering the sprinkler. The same theory holds for residential spaces.
An unfinished space, such as a warehouse, uses piping strung parallel to the ceiling and dropped no more than 12 inches when installing sprinklers. Do not install piping more than 12 inches below the ceiling as the heat pocket rises above the sprinkler head and won’t trigger a reaction. Installed in a finished ceiling, the sprinkler head should be no more than 1 inch from the ceiling. A dropped ceiling means the pipe works are tucked between the drop and the actual ceiling, and the sprinkler head is placed one inch below the finished drop.
Leave at least a one foot of space between the top of a storage rack and the ceiling. Keeping air and heat flow consistent allows the sprinkler head to react appropriately.